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I.                 Ancient Greece

A.   Background

a      gov’t: system for exercising authority

b      democracy: rule of the people; evolved slowly

c       Greece: developed 1st democracy

B.   Athens: largest, most-powerful

a      city-states: basic political unit

b      monarchy-to-aristocracy

c       citizens: adult male residents; certain rights & responsibilities

C.   Athenian Reformers

a      Solon: wealth class system replaced hereditary system

b      Cleisthenes: “founder of democracy in Athens”: increased citizen participation

D.  Changes

a      Pericles: direct democracy

b      Philosophers—Socrates, Plato, Aristotle—used logic and reason to explore new ideas

(a)                       created atmosphere conducive to democracy

II.             Rome

A.   Republic: power rests with citizens who have the right to elect the leaders who make gov’t decisions

1.    developed a set of just laws that applied equally to people throughout the empire

a      based on reason and justice; protection of citizens and their property

b      innocent until proven guilty

c       burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused

d      any law seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside

2.    written legal code: Twelve Tables

a      Code of Justinian: compilation of Roman laws; became a guide on legal matters throughout western Europe