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Absolute Monarchs

Main Idea: After a period of turmoil, absolute monarchs rule Austria & the German state of Prussia.


III.         Central Europe

A.   30 Yrs. War

1.    Conflict over religion, territory, power

2.    major destruction

3.    Peace of Westphalia: 1648

a      weakened Hapsburg states

b      strengthened France

c       German princes independent of Holy Roman emperor

d      ended religious wars

e      introduced new methods of peace negotiation

B.   Characteristics

1.    slow state building

2.    control serfs & block development of strong kings

3.    Austria remains powerful—Hapsburgs

C.   Austria (Hapsburgs) v. Prussia (Hohenzollerns)

1.    War of the Austrian Succession: becomes European war

2.    7 Yr. War: Britain victorious