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Absolute Monarchs

Main Idea: Absolute monarchs in England were overthrown, and Parliament gained power.

 

V.†††††† England

A.   Monarchs v. Parliament

1.    clash over money & power

2.    Charles I: dissolved Parliament when it opposed him

a      Forced to sign Petition of Rights

i          No false imprisonment

ii       No levying taxes w/o Parliament consent

iii     No housing troops in private homes

iv     No martial law in peacetime

B.   English Civil War

1.    Parliament recalled but clash continues

2.    War breaks out

a      Supporters of Charles I: Royalists/Cavaliers

b      Opponents: Puritan supporters of Parliament; Roundheads; led by Cromwell

3.    Charles brought to trial; treason; public execution

C.   Oliver Cromwell: Puritan

1.    rules as military dictator

D.  Restoration

1.    Parliament selected; asks Charles II to rule

2.    habeas corpus: law; prisoner required to be brought before a judge/court for imprisonment

E.   Glorious Revolution

1.    bloodless overthrow of James II by William & Mary of Orange (his daughter)

2.    Goal: return England to Protestantism

3.    Parliament drafts Bill of Rights: limited royal power

a      No suspending laws of Parliament (P)

b      No levying taxes w/o Pís consent

c       No interfering w/ freedom of speech in P

d      No penalty for citizen who petitions the king about grievances

4.    Cabinet: kink between Parliament & monarchy; center of power