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Enlightenment & Revolutions

Main Idea: In the mid-1500s, scientists began to question accepted beliefs and make new theories based on experimentation.


I.       Scientific Revolution

A.   Roots

1.    Medieval view: geocentric theory: Aristotle, Ptolemy

2.    Exploration & new discoveries challenge old ways of thinking

a      Scientific Revolution: based on observations & questioning accepted beliefs

b      Need to research

B.   Astronomy

1.    heliocentric theory: sun-centered

a      Copernicus—25 year study; theory

b      Tycho Brahe—recorded planetary movements

c       Johannes Kepler—use math to prove theory

2.    Galileo—law of the pendulum; telescope, Starry Messenger

C.   Scientific Method: logical procedure for gathering & testing ideas

1.    observation—questioning—hypothesize—test—analyze & interpret

2.    Francis Bacon—empiricism; urged scientists to draw conclusions about the world based on own observations

3.    René Descartes—believes everything should be doubted until it can be proved by reason

D.  Law of Gravity

1.    explains how the same physical laws govern motion on the earth and in the heavens

2.    every object in the universe attracts every other object

E.   Ideas Spread

1.    observation & scientific method important in many fields

2.    Scientific instruments: microscope; mercury barometer

3.    Medicine: dissentions; vaccines

4.    Chemistry: Boyles law—explains how volume, temperature, & pressure affect each other