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Enlightenment & Revolutions

Main Idea: Enlightenment ideas spread through the Western world and profoundly influenced the arts and government.


III. Spread of Enlightenment Ideas

A.    World of Ideas

a.    Salons: Philosophers, writers, artists, scientists, and others gather regularly to discuss new ideas

b.   Diderot creates an encyclopedia containing current ideas about science, art, and government

c.    Enlightenment ideas spread to intellectuals and the middle class throughout Europe

B.    Art & Literature

a.    Baroque: grand, ornate style dominated the 1600s-early 1700s

                                                                         i.      Composers: Bach, Handel

                                                                      ii.      Artists used rich color, detail, and ornate imagery

b.   Neoclassical: simple and elegant dominate late 1700s. It borrows ideas from classical Greece & Rome

                                                                         i.      Composers: Haydn, Beethoven, & Mozart

c.    Novels presenting entertaining stories written in everyday English appeal to the middle class

C.    Enlightenment & Monarchy

a.    Enlightened Despot: enlightened absolute rulerómonarchs who embraced new ideas and made reforms reflecting the Enlightenment spirit

b.   Frederick II of Prussia (Frederick the Great): announces that his goal is to serve & strengthen his country

c.    In Austria, Joseph IIís radical reforms include freedom of worship and the end of serfdom

d.   Catherine the Great of Russia makes limited reforms, which she later revokes after a massive uprising by serfs; most admired by philosophes

                                                                         i.      Catherine vastly enlarges the Russian Empire and wins a warm-weather port for her country